WEDDELL SEAL
(Leptonychotes weddellii)
BODY MASS: 400-600 Kg DEEPEST DIVE: 741 m (REF 1)
BODY SIZE: 250-290 cm LONGEST DIVE: 4020 s (REF 9)


McMURDO SOUND (77°51'S - 166°46'E) TOP
1990-91: Dive depth: max= 741 m (N=16 females)
1990-91: Dive duration: max= 2550 s (N=16 females)
1990-91: (Satellite-linked time-depth recorders SLTDRs, SMRU, Res. 3m, samping= 10s)
REF 1
2000: Dive depth: gd-avg= 250.4 ± 23.9 m, max= 405.8 m (N=8 seals)
2000: Dive duration: gd-avg= 956.3 ± 147.7 s, max= 1764 s (N=8 seals)
2000: (UWE1000-PD2GT, Little Leonardo, 22x124mm, sampling= 1s, res. 0.24m)
REF 2
2000: Dive depth: gd-avg= 231.9 ± 94.4m (N=4 females at "Big Razorback")
2000: Dive depth: gd-avg= 295.2 ± 76.3m (N=4 females at "Turks Head")
2000: (Video-TDR, DSL-1000DV, Little Leonardo, 2 cylinders of 230x52mm each, 3400g)
2000: (Acc. ± 5 m, sampling= 1 s)
REF 3
1987?: Dive duration: max= 1980 s (N=4 seals)
1987?: (Observation of surfacing on an isolated ice hole)
REF 4
1963-65: Dive depth: max= 600 m (N=31 adults and subadults)
1963-65: Dive duration: max= 2600 s (N=31 adults and subadults)
1963-65: (Tsurumi-Seikikosaku maximum depth recorder + ultrasonic depth transmitter)
1963-65: (manometer tube for maximum depth + smoked glass disc time depth recorder)
REF 5
1992-94: Dive depth: avg= 105.8 ± 8.2 m (N=19 weaned pups)
1992-94: Dive duration: avg= 5.67 ± 0.02min, max=780s (N=19 weaned pups)
1992-94: (SLTDR 05W or SDR-T6, Wildlife Computers, Res. 3m, sampling= 10s)
1992-94: Dive depth: avg= 118.5 ± 17.6 m (N=15 yearlings)
1992-94: Dive duration: avg= 7.27 ± 0.07 min, max=960 s (N=15 yearlings)
1992-94: (TDR, Wildlife Computers, Res. 3m, sampling= 10s)
1990-91: Dive depth: avg= 163.1 ± 13.4 m (N=8 females)
1990-91: Dive duration: avg= 12.73 ± 0.03 min, max=2280 s (N=8 females)
1990-91: (SLTDR 05W, Wildlife Computers, Res. 3m, sampling= 60s)
REF 6
1998-99: Dive depth: avg= 261.8 ± 68.4m, max= 386 m (N= 5 females)
1998-99: Dive duration: avg= 26.14 ± 10.92min, max= 3744 s (N=5 females)
1998-99: 58 dives with 10 or more fixes were non-randomly selected from the 5 females
1998-99: (Vemco depth-modulated acoustic transmitter, 60-76.8kHz, 16115mm, 33g)
REF 7
1968+69: Day dive depth: avg-max= 506.3 ± 199.3m, max= 600m (N=4 seals)
1968+69: Twilight dive depth: avg-max= 200 ± 144.2m, max= 360m (N=3 seals)
1968+69: Night dive depth: avg-max= 97 ± 82 m, max= 230 m (N= 5 seals)
1968+69: (Oceanographic maximum depth recorder, 390g, 55x115mm, Res. 10m)
REF 8
DRESCHER INLET (72°52'S - 19°26'W) TOP
1998: Dive depth: mode at 400 m, max= 450 m (N=8 seals)
1998: Dive duration: max= 4020 s (N=8 seals)
1998: (TDR, Driesen+Kern, 120x180 mm, sampling= 8s, res. ca. 3.1m)
REF 9
2003: Under ice shelf dive depth: avg-max= 152.9 ± 23.6m (N=12 dives)
2003: Demersal dive depth: avg-max= 413.4 ± 13.4m (N=19 dives)
2003: Pelagial dive depth: avg-max= 117 ± 47.4m (N=35 dives)
2003: (Video-TDR, DSL-1000DV, Little Leonardo, 2 cylinders of 230x52mm each, 3400g)
2003: (Acc. ± 5 m, sampling= 1 s, all dives performed by 4 females)
REF 10

REFERENCES
REF 1 Testa JW (1994) Over-winter movements and diving behavior of female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72: 1700-1710
REF 2 Sato K, Mitani Y, Cameron MF, Siniff DB, Naito Y (2003) Factors affecting stroking patterns and body angle in diving Weddell seals under natural conditions. Journal of Experimental Biology 206: 1461-1470
REF 3 Watanabe Y, Mitani Y, Sato K, Cameron MF, Naito Y (2003) Dive depths of Weddell seals in relation to vertical prey distribution as estimated by image data. Marine Ecology Progress Series 252: 283288
REF 4 Castellini MA, Davis RW, Kooyman GL (1988) Blood chemistry regulation during repetitive diving in Weddell seals. Physiological Zoology 61: 379-386
REF 5 Kooyman GL (1966) Maximum Diving Capacities of the Weddell Seal, Leptonychotes weddelli. Science 151: 1553-1554
REF 6 Burns JM (1999) The development of diving behavior in juvenile Weddell seals: pushing physiological limits in order to survive. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 737-747
REF 7 Hindell MA, Harcourt R, Waas JR, Thompson D (2002) Fine-scale three-dimensional spatial use by diving, lactating female Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddellii. Marine Ecology Progress Series 242: 275284
REF 8 Kooyman GL (1975) A comparison between day and night diving in the Weddell Seal. Journal of Mammalogy 56: 563-574
REF 9 Plötz J, Bornemann H, Knust R, Schröder A, Bester M (2001) Foraging behaviour of Weddell seals, and its ecological implications. Polar Biology 24: 901-909
REF 10 Watanabe Y, Bornemann H, Liebsch N, Plötz J, Sato K, Naito Y, Miyazaki N (2006) Seal-mounted cameras detect invertebrate fauna on the underside of an Antarctic ice shelf. Marine Ecology Progress Series 309: 297-300

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