NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEAL
(Mirounga angustirostris)
BODY MASS: 2300 kg DEEPEST DIVE: 1581 m (REF 2)
BODY SIZE: 450 cm LONGEST DIVE: 7140 s (REF 4)


SAN MIGUEL (34°02'N - 120°23'W) TOP
1988: Dive depth: 398 ± 16.5 m, max= 1529 m (N=6 males)
1988: Dive duration: 22.6 ± 0.38 min, max= 4620 s (N=6 males)
1988: (TDR, Wildlife Computers, 150x29mm, 196 g, sampling= 30-60s, Acc. 6m)
REF 1
1989-90: Dive depth: 367 ± 34 m, max= 1581 m (N=16 males)
1989-90: Dive duration: 1356 ± 60s (N=16 males)
1990: Dive depth: 520 ± 15 m, max= 1567 m (N=8 females)
1990: Dive duration: 1338 ± 78 s(N=8 females)
1990: (GLTDR, Wildlife Computers, sampling= 30-60s, Acc. ± 2m)
REF 2
1990-91: Dive depth: gd-avg= 365.1 ± 1.6 m (N=15 males)
1990-91: Dive duration: gd-avg= 23.1 ± 0.7 min (N=15 males)
1990-91: Dive depth: gd-avg= 498.2 ± 27.4 m (N=21 females)
1990-91: Dive duration: gd-avg= 23.6 ± 0.4 min (N=21 females)
1990-91: (GLTDR, Wildlife Computers, sampling= 30-90s, Acc. ± 2m)
REF 3
1991-92: Postbreeding migration
1991-92: Dive depth: avg= 366 ± 37.5m, max= 1581m (N=11 males)
1991-92: Dive duration: avg= 22.4 ± 1.7 min, max= 5340s (N=11 males)
1991-92: Dive depth: avg= 522 ± 26.8 m, max= 1567m (N=26 females)
1991-92: Dive duration: avg= 21.8 ± 1 min, max=4800s (N=26 females)
1991-92: Postmolt migration
1991-92: Dive depth: avg= 366 ± 57.5m, max= 1287m (N=6 males)
1991-92: Dive duration: avg= 23.8 ± 2.3 min, max= 4800s (N=6 males)
1991-92: Dive depth: avg= 486 ± 49.1 m, max= 1463m (N=10 females)
1991-92: Dive duration: avg= 24.5 ± 2.4 min, max=7140s (N=10 females)
1991-92: (Time depth recorder, 154x29 mm, 196g, sampling= 30-60s, Acc. ± 2m)
REF 4
ANO NUEVO (37°06'N - 122°20'W) TOP
1985-86: Dive depth: avg= 400 ± 156 m, max= 816/894 m (N=7 females)
1985-86: Dive duration: avg= 19.2 ± 4.3 min, max= 2880 s (N=7 females)
1985-86: (Photomechanical tdr, 50x200mm, 700g)
REF 5
1987: 73-days dive depth: avg= 463.9 ± 147m, max= 934m (N=1 female)
1987: 73-days dive duration: avg= 17.1 ± 3.4min, max= 2010s (N=1 female)
1987: (Japanese TDR, micro-paper & -stylus, 52x193mm, 980g, error 2%)
REF 6
1987-88: Dive depth: gd-avg= 504.2 ± 39.4 m, max= 1250 m (N=6 females)
1987-88: Dive duration: avg= 20 ± 2 min, max= 3720 s (N=6 females)
1987-88: (Japanese TDR, micro-paper & -stylus, 52x193mm, 980g, error 2%)
1987-88: (Photomechanical tdr, 50x200mm, 700g)
REF 7
1988: Dive depth: 496 ± 43.7 m, max= 1250 m (N=3 seals)
1988: Dive duration: 1218 ± 129 s, max= 3006 s (N=3 seals)
1988: (Japanese TDR, micro-paper & -stylus, 52x193mm, 980g, error 2%)
REF 8
1983-91: Dive depth: 509 ± 147 m, max= 1273 m (N=10 postbreeding females)
1983-91: Dive duration: 1248 ± 246s, max= 2826s (N=10 postbreeding females)
1983-91: Dive depth: 473 ± 151 m, max= 1181 m (N=5 pregnant females)
1983-91: Dive duration: 1662 ± 384 s, max= 4074 s (N=5 pregnant females)
1983-91: Dive depth: 330 ± 127 m, max= 1503 m (N=5 males)
1983-91: Dive duration: 1272 ± 276 s, max= 4002 s (N=5 males)
1983-91: (TDR, Wildlife Computers)
REF 9
1989-91: Dive depth: avg= 330 ± 222m, max= 1503m (N=9 adult males)
1989-91: Dive duration: 21.25 ± 4.63 min, max= 5400s (N=9 adult males)
1989-91: Dive depth: avg= 345 ± 136 m, max= 1011 m (N=7 juvenile males)
1989-91: Dive duration: 14.67 ± 3.74 min, max= 2820 s (N=7 juvenile males)
1989-91: Dive depth: avg= 390 ± 140 m, max= 870 m (N=6 juvenile females)
1989-91: Dive duration: 15.54 ± 3.88 min, max= 3210 s (N=6 juvenile females)
1989-91: (Wildlife Computers, sampling = 30 s)
REF 10
1995: Dive depth: avg= 370 ± 46 m (N=1 seal)
1995: Dive duration: avg= 17.4 ± 2.2 min (N=1 seal)
1995: (MkIII, Wildlife Computers, 154x29mm, 196g, sampling=5s, Acc.= 2m)
1995: Dive depth: avg= 226 ± 68 m (N=1 seal)
1995: Dive duration: avg= 14.1 ± 3.8 min (N=1 seal)
1995: (custom-made speed-tdr, 65x30x150mm, 450g, sampling= 5s, error 22.5m)
REF 11
1996: Dive depth: avg= 348 ± 68 m (N=6 juveniles)
1996: Dive duration: avg= 13.3 ± 1 min (N=6 juveniles)
1996: (TDR Datagrabber, sampling=10 s, Res.= ± 1m)
1997: Dive depth: avg= 305 ± 121 m (N=3 males)
1997: Dive duration: avg= 21.2 ± 3.6 min (N=3 males)
1997: (TDR Datagrabber, sampling=30 s, Res.= ± 1m)
REF 12
1995-96: Dive depth: avg= 200.7 ± 81.1 m (N=4 juveniles)
1995-96: Dive duration: avg= 14 ± 3.3 min (N=4 juveniles)
1995-96: (TDR modified from Tattletale Lite, Onset Computer, sampling=10 s, Res.= 1m)
REF 13
1988-94: Dive depth: avg= 369 ± 85m, max= 1011m (N=11 juvenile males)
1988-94: Dive duration: avg= 15.5 ± 2.4min, max= 5160s (N=11 juvenile males)
1988-94: Dive depth: avg= 379 ± 64m, max= 911m (N=10 juvenile females)
1988-94: Duration: avg= 14.9 ± 2.8min, max= 3180s (N=10 juvenile females)
1988-94: (MkIII, Wildlife Computers, 154x29mm, 196g, sampling=30s, Acc.2m until 450m)
1988-94: (GLTDR, Wildlife Computers, sampling=30-60s, Acc. ± 2m)
REF 14
1996: Dive depth: avg= 289 ± 117 m, max= 430 m (N=1 female)
1996: Dive duration: avg= 14.9 ± 6.1 min, max= 1332 s (N=1 female)
1996: (Video recorder, Pisces Design, 300x130mm, 6200g, sampling=1s)
REF 15
1990+91: Dive depth: max= 987 m (N=18 homing juveniles)
1990+91: (various TDRs from Wildlife Computers, sampling= 1-5-10s)
1990+91: (Mk3 27x150mm, 100g, HRTDR 50x90x65mm, 555g, SVTDR 53x200mm, 570g)
REF 16
2004-05: Dive depth: gd-avg= 466.4 ±SE 23.2m, max= 613.9m (N=12 females)
2004-05: Dive duration: gd-avg= 20.1 ±SE 0.5 min, max= 1374s (N=12 females)
2004-05: (Mk7 or Mk9, Wildlife Computers)
REF 17

REFERENCES
REF 1 Delong RL, Stewart BS (1991) Diving patterns of northern Elephant seal bulls. Marine Mammal Science 7: 369-384
REF 2 Stewart BS, DeLong RL (1994) Postbreeding Foraging Migrations of Northern Elephant Seals. In: Le Boeuf BJ, Laws R (eds) Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behavior, and Physiology. University of California Press, Los Angeles, pp 290-309
REF 3 Stewart BS, deLong RL (1993) Seasonal dispersion and habitat use of foraging northern elephant seals. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 66: 179-194
REF 4 Stewart BS, deLong RL (1995) Double migrations of the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris. Journal of Mammalogy 76(1): 196-205
REF 5 Le Boeuf BJ, Costa DP, Huntley AC, Feldkamp SD (1988) Continuous, deep diving in female northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66: 446-458
REF 6 Naito Y, Le Boeuf BJ, Asaga T, Huntley AC (1989) Long-Term Diving Records of an Adult Female Northern Elephant Seal. Antarctic Records 33: 1-9
REF 7 Le Boeuf BJ, Naito Y, Huntley AC, Asaga T (1989) Prolonged, continuous, deep diving by northern elephant seals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67: 2514-2519.
REF 8 Asaga T, Naito Y, Le Boeuf BJ, Sakurai H (1994) Functional Analysis of Dive Types of Female Northern Elephant Seals. In: Le Boeuf BJ, Laws R (eds) Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behavior, and Physiology. University of California Press, Los Angeles, pp 310-327
REF 9 Le Boeuf BJ (1994) Variation in the Diving Pattern of Northern Elephant Seals with Age, Mass, Sex, and Reproductive Condition. In: Le Boeuf BJ, Laws R (eds) Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behavior, and Physiology. University of California Press, Los Angeles, pp 237-252
REF 10 Le Boeuf BJ, Crocker DE, Blackwell SB, Morris P, Thorson P (1993) Sex differences in diving and foraging behaviour of northern elephant seals. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 66: 149-178
REF 11 Fletcher S, Le Boeuf BJ, Costa DP, Tyack PL, Blackwell SD (1996) Onboard acoustic recording from diving northern elephant seals. Journal of Acoustic Society of America 100: 2531-2539
REF 12 Le Boeuf BJ, Crocker DE, Grayson J, Gedamke J, Webb P, Blackwell SB, Costa DP (2000) Respiration and Heart rate at the surface between dives in Northern Elephant seals. Journal of Experimental Biology 203: 3265-3274
REF 13 Webb P, Crocker DE, Blackwell SB, Costa DP, Boeuf BJL (1998) Effects of buoyancy on the diving behavior of northern elephant seals. Journal of Experimental Biology 201: 2349-2358
REF 14 Le Boeuf BJ, Morris PA, Blackwell SB, Crocker DE, Costa DP (1996) Diving behavior of juvenile northern elephant seals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74: 1632-1644
REF 15 Davis RW, Fuiman LA, Williams TM, Le Boeuf BJ (2001) Three-dimensional movements and swimming activity of a northern elephant seal. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 129: 759-770
REF 16 Oliver GW, Morris PA, Thorson PH, Le Boeuf BJ (1998) Homing behavior of juvenile northern elephant seals. Marine Mammal Science 14: 245-256
REF 17 Kuhn CE, Crocker DE, Tremblay Y and Costa DP (2009) Time to eat: measurements of feeding behaviour in a large marine predator, the northern elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris. Journal of Animal Ecology 78: 513523

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