LITTLE PENGUIN
(Eudyptula minor)
BODY MASS: 0.55-2.1 kg DEEPEST DIVE: 69 m (REF 1)
BODY LENGTH: 40 cm LONGEST DIVE: 90 s (REF 2)


PHILLIP ISLAND (38°28'S - 145°13'E) TOP
1984: Dive depth: avg-max= 30 m, max= 69 m (N= 32 birds)
1984: (Capillary depth gauges, 600x2 mm, <1 g, Acc. 5% of real depth)
REF 1
2005: Dive depth: range of median: 1.9-20.8m, max= 66.7m (N=38 females)
2005: Dive duration: max= 90 s (N= 38 females)
2005: (UME-D2GT, Little Leonardo, 53x15mm, 16g, Acc. 0.1m, sampling=1s)
REF 2
2002: Dive depth: avg= 13 ± 3.9 m (N=22 penguins)
2005: (LTD 1200-100, Lotek, 62x18mm, 17g, sampling= 2 s)
REF 3
2006: Dive depth: avg= 8.1 ± 1.8m, max= 26.5m (N=14 birds)
2006: Dive duration: avg= 28.5 ± 3.8s, max= 79 s (N=14 birds)
2006: (Study site = Saint Kilda's pier in Melbourne city, 140km from Phillip Is.)
2006: (M-190DT, Little Leonardo, 49x15mm, 14g, Res. 0.1m, sampling=1s)
REF 4
2004: Dive depth: avg= 14.8 ± 2.9m (N=5 incubating males)
2004: Dive duration: avg= 35.6 ± 5.2 s (N=5 incubating males)
2004: Dive depth: avg= 11.3 ± 2.4 m (N=5 incubating females)
2004: Dive duration: avg= 26 ± 4.1 s (N=5 incubating females)
2004: (UME-D2GT, Little Leonardo, 53x15mm, 16g, Acc. 0.1m, sampling=1s)
REF 5
MARION BAY (42°50'S - 147°55'E) TOP
1993: Dive depth: avg= 3.4 ± 3.9 m, max= 27.4 m (N= 8 birds)
1993: Dive duration: avg= 21.3 ± 8.4 s, max= 88 s (N=8 birds)
1993: (Depth gauges, 125x15x15 mm, 35 g, reliable for depth >0.5 m, sampling= 8s)
REF 6
PENGUIN ISLAND (32°16'S - 115°21'E) TOP
2001: Shallow diver: avg= 1.9 ± 1.7 m, max= 17.9 m (N= 4 birds)
2001: Deep diver: avg= 8.1 ± 4.7 m, max = 19.7 m (N= 2 birds)
2001: (Little Leonardo, UME-DT: 48x15mm, 14g & UME-D2GT: 53x15mm, 16g)
2001: (both loggers: Acc. 0.1m, sampling= 1s)
REF 7
2001-02: Dive depth: avg= 10.4 ± 1.85 m, max= 22.1 m (N= 4 birds)
2001-02: Dive duration: avg= 37.2 ± 5.7 m, max = 87 s (N= 2 birds)
2001-02: (UME-D2GT, Little Leonardo, 52x15mm, 16g, sampling= 1s)
REF 8
&
REF 9
2001: Dive depth: avg= 6 ± 3.5 m (N=8 penguins)
2001: (M190-D2GT, Little Leonardo, 52x15mm, 16g, re-sampled to 2s)
REF 3
ALBATROSS ISLAND (40°25'S - 144°32'E) TOP
1987: March: Dive depth: 5.1 ± 3.0m, max= 20 m (N= 1 bird)
1987: March: Dive duration: 21.7 ± 11.4 s (N= 1 bird)
1987: Dec.: Dive depth: 5.0 ± 3.8m, max= 50 m (N= 1 bird)
1987: Dec.: Dive duration: 20.6 ± 13.2 s (N= 1 bird)
1987: (Activity recorder, 2 modules: 30x40x15 & 110x35x10 mm, 60 g, sampling= 9s)
REF 10
OAMARU (45°07'S - 170°59'E) TOP
2001: Dive depth: avg= 5 ± 0.9 m (N=4 penguins)
2001: (TDR MK7 Wildlife Computers, 65x12x8mm, 32g, sampling= 2 s)
REF 3
MOTUARA (41°06'S - 174°17'E) TOP
2001: Dive depth: avg= 11 ± 2.7 m (N=4 penguins)
2001: (TDR MK7 Wildlife Computers, 65x12x8mm, 32g, sampling= 2 s)
REF 3

REFERENCES
REF 1 Montague T (1985) A maximum dive recorder for little penguins. Emu 85: 264-267
REF 2 Ropert-Coudert Y, Chiaradia A, Kato A (2006) An exceptionally deep dive by a Little Penguin Eudyptula minor. Marine Ornithology 34: 71-74
REF 3 Chiaradia A, Ropert-Coudert Y, Kato A, Mattern T, Yorke J (2007) Diving behaviour of Little Penguins from four colonies across their whole distribution range: bathymetry affecting diving effort and fledging success. Marine Biology 151: 1535-1542
REF 4 Preston TJ, Ropert-Coudert Y, Kato A, Chiaradia A, Kirkwood R, Dann P and Reina RD (2008) Foraging behaviour of little penguins Eudyptula minor in an artificially modified environment. Endangered Species Research 4: 95-103
REF 5 Kato A, Ropert-Coudert Y, Chiaradia A (2008) Regulation of Trip Duration by an Inshore Forager, the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor), during Incubation. The Auk 125: 588593
REF 6 Bethge P, Nicol S, Culik BM, Wilson RP (1997) Diving behaviour and energetics in breeding little penguins (Eudyptula minor). Journal of Zoology London 242: 483-502
REF 7 Ropert-Coudert Y, Kato A, Naito Y, Cannell B (2003) Individual Diving Strategies in the Little Penguin. Waterbirds 26: 403-408
REF 8 Kato A, Ropert-Coudert Y, Grémillet D, Cannell B (2006) Locomotion and foraging strategy in foot-propelled and wing-propelled shallow-diving seabirds. Marine Ecology Progress Series 308: 293-301
REF 9 Ropert-Coudert Y, Kato A, Wilson RP, Cannell B (2006) Foraging strategies and prey encounter rate of free-ranging Little Penguins. Marine Biology 149: 139-148
REF 10 Gales RC, Williams C, Ritz D (1990) Foraging behaviour of the little penguin, Eudyptula minor: initial results and assessment of instrument effect. Journal of Zoology of London 220: 61-85

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